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Reading Passage 1

TitleReef fish 的研究(2015.11.7)

Question typesTrue/ False/Not Given 4题

Summary Completion 5题

Table 4题

文章内容回顾讲reef fish小鱼长到成年鱼的进化过程,以及那种鱼才是predator的目标。提到large better的hypothesis。就体型越大其各方面的机能是否更占优势进行了讨论

True/ False/Not Given

1. 现在人们只注重研究动物们的逃跑速度对动物躲避天敌的重要性。False:动物躲避天敌的能力包括 size,speed等很多因素

2. 体积大的动物视力更好。

True:身强体壮的大个动物 visual development 也比较好

3. 珊瑚鱼在幼年阶段与成年阶段的特征都一样。

False:珊瑚鱼 change dramatically and vary from individuals

4. 鱼的生长速度在成年阶段比幼年阶段慢。

NOT GIVEN:体型大的 individual 速度比较慢

Summary Completion

5. 是猎食者(predator)还是被捕者(prey)与 mouth size 有关

6. 体型 in medium size 更容易成为猎食者的对象

7. 为了吸引鱼类,在 artificial light 的帮助下,用 net 抓鱼

8. 把另一种鱼抓回并运送到 laboratory 有困难

9. 实验的时间与下一个 new moon 有关


10. 1st stage: larva grow in fish body

11. 2nd stage: adolescents settle in northern Sector, young fishes take place in open ocean

12. 3rd stage: adults migrate, move to places that are close to reef

13. During this migration process, there will be increasing mortality


题型技巧分析摘要题在做题过程中需要注意逻辑词的定位功能,还需要注意答案前后的修饰成分或者是动宾搭配和介宾搭配。 修饰成分除了常见的定语之外,还需要注意主系表结构中的表语也经常成为定语的替换表达。


Reading Passage 2

TitleCorporate Social Responsibility企业社会责任

Question typesList of heading 7题

Summary 2题

Matching features 4题

文章内容回顾The moral appeal---arguing that companies have a duty to be good citizens and to “do the right thing”---is prominent in the goal of Business for Social Responsibility, the leading nonprofit CSR business association in the United States.


An excellent definition was developed in the 1980s ‘‘Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The notion of license to operate derives from the fact that every company needs tacit or explicit permission from governments, communities, and numerous other stakeholders to do business. Finally, reputation is used by many companies to justify CSR initiatives on the grounds that they will improve a company’s image, strengthen its brand, enliven morale, and even raise the Value of its stock.


To advance CSR, we must root it in a broad understanding of the interrelationship between a corporation and society. To say broadly that business and society need each other might seem like a cliché, but it is also the basic truth that will pull companies out of the muddle that their current corporate-responsibility thinking has created. Successful corporations need a healthy society. Education, health care, and equal opportunity are essential to a productive workforce. Safe products and working conditions not only attract customers but lower the internal costs of accidents. Efficient utilization of land, water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive. Good government, the rule of Jaw, and property rights are essential for efficiency and innovation. Any business that pursues its ends at the expense of the society in which it operates will find its success to be illusory and ultimately temporary. At the same time, a health society needs successful companies. No social program can rival the business sector when it comes to creating the jobs, wealth, and innovation that improve standards of living and social conditions over time.


A company’s impact on society also changes over time, as social standards evolve and science progresses. Asbestos, now understood as a serious health risk, was thought to be safe in the early 1900s, given the scientific knowledge then available. Evidence of its risks gradually mounted for more than 50 years before any company was held liable for the harms it can cause. Many firms that failed to anticipate the consequences of this evolving body of research have been bankrupt by the results. No longer can companies be content to monitor only the obvious social impacts of today. Without a careful process for identifying evolving social effects of tomorrow, firms may risk their very survival.


No business can solve all of society’s problems or bear the cost of doing so. Instead, each company must select issues that intersect with its particular business. Corporations are not responsible for all the world's problems, nor do they have the resources to solve them all. Each company can identify the particular set of societal problems that it is best equipped to help resolve and from which it can gain the greatest competitive benefit. Addressing social issues by creating shared value will lead to self-sustaining solutions that do not depend on private or government subsidies. When a well-run business applies its vast resources, expertise, and management talent to problems that it understands and in which it has a stake, it can have a greater impact on social good than any other institution or philanthropic organization.


The best corporate citizenship initiatives involve far more than writing a check: they specify clear, measurable goals and track results over time. A good example is GE’s program to adopt underperforming public high schools near several of its major U.S. Facilities. The company contributes between $250, 000 and $1 million over a five-year period to each school and makes in-kind donations as well GE managers and employees take an active role by working with school administrators to assess needs and mentor or tutor students. The graduation rate of these schools almost doubled during this time period. Effective corporate citizenship initiatives such as this one create goodwill and improve relations with local governments and other important constituencies. What’s more, GE’s employees feel great pride in their participation. Their effect is inherently limited though. No matter how beneficial the program is, it remains incidental to the company's business, and the direct effect on GE’s recruiting and retention is modest.


Microsoft is a good example of a shared-value opportunity arising from investments in context. The shortage of information technology workers is a significant constraint on Microsoft’s growth currently, there are more than 450,000 unfilled IT positions in the United States alone. Community colleges, representing 45% of all U.S. Undergraduates, could be a major solution. Microsoft recognizes, however, that community colleges face special challenges: IT curricula are not standardized, technology used in classrooms is often outdated, and there are no systematic professional development programs to keep faculty up to date. In addition to contributing money and products, Microsoft sent employee volunteers to colleges to assess needs, contribute to curriculum development, and create faculty development institutes. Note that in this case, volunteers and assigned staff were able to use their core professional skills to address a social need, a far cry from typical volunteer programs. Microsoft has achieved results that have benefited many communities while having a direct-and potentially significant-impact on the company.


At the heart of any strategy is a unique value proposition: a set of needs a company can meet for its chosen customers that others cannot. The most strategic CSR occurs when a company adds a social dimension to its value proposition, making social impact integral to the overall strategy Consider Whole Foods Market, whose value proposition is to sell organic, natural, and healthy food products to customers who are passionate about food and the environment. Whole Foods’ commitment to natural and environmentally friendly operating practices extends well beyond sourcing. Stores are constructed using a minimum of virgin raw materials. Recently, the company purchased renewable wind energy credits equal to 100% of its electricity use in all of its stores and facilities, the only Fortune 500 Company to offset its electricity consumption entirely. Spoiled produce and biodegradable waste are trucked to regional centers for composting. Whole Foods’ vehicles are being converted to run on biofuels. Even the cleaning products used in its stores are environmentally friendly. And through its philanthropy, the company has created the Animal Compassion Foundation to develop more natural and humane ways of raising farm animals. In short, nearly every aspect of the company’s value chain reinforces the social dimensions of its value proposition, distinguishing Whole Foods from its competitors.

Listing of heading

i) How CRS may help one business to expand

ii) CRS in many aspect of a company’s business

iii) A CRS initiative without a financial gain

iv) Lack of action by the state of social issues

v) Drives or pressures motivate companies to address CSR

vi) the past illustrates business are responsible for future outcomes

vii) Companies applying CRS should be selective

viii) Reasons that business and society benefit each other

14. Paragraph A v

15. Paragraph B viii

16. Paragraph C iv

17. Paragraph D vii

18. Paragraph E iii

19. Paragraph F i

20. Paragraph G ii


21. equal opportunity

22. internal costs

Matching features:

A. general electronics

B. Microsoft

C. Whole foods market

23. The disposable waste C

24. the way company purchases as goods C

25. helping the undeveloped A

26. ensuring the people have the latest information B

题型难度分析Summary题按顺序出题所以难度不大,人名匹配原文容易定位,但是heading 题乱序,所以导致整篇文章三道题目组合起来难度稍大





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  • 讲师:吕云云 Teresa
  • | 课时:149 |
  • 价格:1980.00

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